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The Center for Advanced Mineral, Metallurgical and Materials Processing

Pyrometallurgical Applications

Often considered the workhorse of the metals extraction and refining industry, pyrometallurgy has the capability of producing high value, high return results. The applications to which pyrometallurgy can be applied cover a wide and ever expanding range of industries, from large-scale mass production of metals and materials to specialized refining of precious metals. CAMP engineers have an extensive knowledge base and many years of experience in Pyrometallurgical Applications including:

Smelting, Converting, Refining

Aimed at producing a saleable finished product, many companies employ smelting, converting, and refining. Smelting essentially separates a charge into molten phases, taking advantage of the partitioning of the constituents to produce a semi-refined product. Converting is used to transform semi-refined metals while still in the molten phase through the use of separator gases. Refining represents the last phase of producing a saleable product and results in the separation of the metal from the smelter slag. CAMP has years of experience performing what many refer to as the basis of modern industrial processes and can provide you and your company with the expertise needed to design, test, or refine.


Agglomeration, or the coalescense of smaller particles to form a larger particle, has often been seen as a nuisance within industrial process systems. Research in the area of agglomeration for beneficial means is used across a wide variety of industries, ranging from pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and fertilizer to applications in metals, ceramics and solid fuel sectors. CAMP has performed a wide variety of studies concerning agglomeration issues, including fine powder sintering, sodium-coal combustion agglomeration, and many combustion systems analysis. Whether agglomeration may be an issue or a benefit for your process system CAMP can provide the analytical analyses tools to meet your needs.


Often referred to as roasting, calcining is used throughout the process industry to thermally decompose, phase transition, or volatize the components of interest or interfering components. CAMP has a variety of means to perform calcining operations, including but not limited to rotary kilns, tube furnaces, and fluidized bed reactors. CAMP's highly trained staff and knowledgeable engineers can more than adequately perform needed calcination procedures and provide the necessary related analysis for your experimental or testing needs.