CAMP

CAMP

The Center for Advanced Mineral, Metallurgical and Materials Processing

Applications

Analytical

Extractive Analysis
Calcination Analysis
Fluidized Bed Reaction Analysis

Fluidized-bed reactors are used in a number of applications ranging from catalytic cracking in the petroleum industry to oxidation reactions in the chemical industry. Most applications involve reactions in which catalyst decay is prominent and a continuous circuit is required for catalyst regeneration, or reactions where close control fo operating conditions, particularly temperature is required.

Carbon/Sulfur Analysis

The majority of metals and their alloys will burn in oxygen if heated to a high enough temperature. The carbon in the sample is oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) while the sulfur is converted to sulfur dioxide (SO2). CO2 and SO2 can then be measured by infrared (IR) detectors.

Combustion of inorganic materials can be hastened through the use of an accelerator. The purpose of the accelerator is to ignite or set fire to the sample. It can also double as a flux to dissolve any oxide skins making the melt thoroughly fluid. A completely fluid melt is essential in order to oxidize the carbon and sulfur in the sample in a relatively short time frame.

Mineral Liberation Analysis

The Mineral Liberation Analyzer (MLA) is an automated mineral analysis system that can identify minerals in polished sections of drill core, particulate, or lump materials, and quantify a wide range of mineral characteristics, such as mineral abundance, grain size, and liberation.

The MLA was developed during the late 1990’s by Dr Ying Gu of the University of Queensland’s JKMRC Research Centre, in collaboration with its commercial arm, JKTech, based in Brisbane, Australia. Following its release as a commercial product in 2000, the MLA was quickly adopted by many of the world’s leading mining companies.

Mineral texture and degree of liberation are fundamental properties of ore and drive its economic treatment, making the data gathered by the MLA invaluable to geologists, mineralogists and metallurgists who engage in process optimization, mine feasibility studies, and ore characterization analyses.

X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

X-Ray diffraction (XRD) is an analytical technique used to identify the composition (usually minerals present) in both natural and manufactured materials. The material is ground to a fine powder, and the interaction of the material with X-rays results in a diffraction pattern. CAMP’s Rigaku Ultima IV X-ray diffractometer enables the identification of amorphous and crystalline phases, with semi-quantitative analysis of crystalline phases. The instrument is outfitted with a thermal stage for studies in non-ambient conditions at temperatures up to 1400˚C. Data is evaluated with Rigaku’s PDXL or MDI’s Jade Pro software that compares the data analyzed to thousands of reference patterns from the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database (AMCSD) and the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) PDF-2 2010 database.

X-Ray Fluorescence XRF Analysis

The analysis of major and trace elements in geological materials by x-ray fluorescence is made possible by the behavior of atoms when they interact with radiation. When materials are excited with high-energy, short wavelength radiation (e.g., X-rays), they can become ionized. If the energy of the radiation is sufficient to dislodge a tightly-held inner electron, the atom becomes unstable and an outer electron replaces the missing inner electron. When this happens, energy is released due to the decreased binding energy of the inner electron orbital compared with an outer one. The emitted radiation is of lower energy than the primary incident X-rays and is termed fluorescent radiation. Because the energy of the emitted photon is characteristic of a transition between specific electron orbitals in a particular element, the resulting fluorescent X-rays can be used to detect the abundances of elements that are present in the sample.

Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy

Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the elements present in a material, based on the interaction of the material with a plasma. CAMP’s Thermo iCAP-6500 Duo View inductively-coupled argon plasma optical emission spectrometer provides elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and digestates from solid materials. The iCAP-6500 is capable of identifying more than 60 elements.

Particle Size Analysis

Particle size distribution is an essential property for assessing the likely behavior of granular material under applied fluid or gravitational forces, and gauging the economic utility of bulk materials in a wide range of industries and applications. Particle size distribution analysis can be performed using a scanning electron or light microscope, a Zetasizer, or using the methods of wet or dry sieving.