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Analytical Applications

Extractive   Analysis

Calcination Analysis


Fluidized Bed Reaction Analysis

Fluidized-bed reactors are used in a number of applications ranging from catalytic cracking in the petroleum industry to oxidation reactions in the chemical industry.

Summary Analysis

Fluidized-bed reactors are used in a number of applications ranging from catalytic cracking in the petroleum industry to oxidation reactions in the chemical industry. Most applications involve reactions in which catalyst decay is prominent and a continuous circuit is required for catalyst regeneration, or reactions where close control fo operating conditions, particularly temperature is required.

Reference & Additional Information
  • Butt, J.B., Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design - 2nd Edition

Sulphur/Carbon Analysis

The majority of metals and their alloys will burn in oxygen if heated to a high enough temperature. The carbon in the sample is oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) while the sulfur is converted to sulfur dioxide (SO2). CO2 and SO2 can then be measured by infrared (IR) detectors.

Summary Analysis

Often, combustion of inorganic materials can be hastened through the use of an accelerator. The purpose of the accelerator is to ignite or set fire to the sample. It can also double as a flux to dissolve any oxide skins making the melt thoroughly fluid. A completely fluid melt is essential in order to oxidize the carbon and sulfur in the sample in a relatively short time frame.

Reference & Additional Information
  • LECO COrporation Literature Materials

Mineral Iberation Analysis

The MLA (or Mineral Liberation Analyzer) is an automated mineral analysis system that can identify minerals in polished sections of drill core, particulate, or lump materials, and quantify a wide range of mineral characteristics, such as mineral abundance, grain size, and liberation.

Summary Analysis

The MLA was developed during the late 1990’s by Dr Ying Gu of the University of Queensland’s JKMRC Research Centre, in collaboration with its commercial arm, JKTech, based in Brisbane, Australia. Following its release as a commercial product in 2000, the MLA was quickly adopted by many of the world’s leading mining companies.

The MLA (or Mineral Liberation Analyzer) is an automated mineral analysis system that can identify minerals in polished sections of drill core, particulate, or lump materials, and quantify a wide range of mineral characteristics, such as mineral abundance, grain size, and liberation. Mineral texture and degree of liberation are fundamental properties of ore and drive its economic treatment, making the data gathered by the MLA invaluable to geologists, mineralogists and metallurgists who engage in process optimization, mine feasibility studies, and ore characterization analyses.

Reference & Additional Information

X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the analogous techniques of small and large angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) are high-tech, non-destructive methods for analyzing a wide range of materials, including fluids, metals, minerals, polymers, catalysts, plastics, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, thin-film coatings, and semiconductors.

Summary Analysis

X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the analogous techniques of small and large angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) are high-tech, non-destructive methods for analyzing a wide range of materials, including fluids, metals, minerals, polymers, catalysts, plastics, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, thin-film coatings, and semiconductors. Theses techniques have become indispensable for materials investigation, characterization and quality control (QC). Example applications include phase analysis, crystalline structure and relaxation determination, texture and residual stress investigations, R&D for nano-materials, and polymorph screening. Whether research or production QC and engineering, Rigaku offers a range of instruments, developed in co-operation with academic and industrial users, which provide the most technically advanced, and cost-effective X-ray solutions available today.

Reference & Additional Information
  • Rigaku Corporate Materials - XRD

X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis

The XRF method depends on fundamental principles that are common to several other instrumental methods involving interactions between electron beams and x-rays with samples, including: X-ray spectroscopy (e.g., SEM - EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (microprobe WDS).

Summary Analysis

An X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer is an x-ray instrument used for routine, relatively non-destructive chemical analyses of rocks, minerals, sediments and fluids. It works on wavelength-dispersive spectroscopic principles that are similar to an electron microprobe (EPMA). However, an XRF cannot generally make analyses at the small spot sizes typical of EPMA work (2-5 microns), so it is typically used for bulk analyses of larger fractions of geological materials. The relative ease and low cost of sample preparation, and the stability and ease of use of x-ray spectrometers make this one of the most widely used methods for analysis of major and trace elements in rocks, minerals, and sediment.

The XRF method depends on fundamental principles that are common to several other instrumental methods involving interactions between electron beams and x-rays with samples, including: X-ray spectroscopy (e.g., SEM - EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (microprobe WDS).

The analysis of major and trace elements in geological materials by x-ray fluorescence is made possible by the behavior of atoms when they interact with radiation. When materials are excited with high-energy, short wavelength radiation (e.g., X-rays), they can become ionized. If the energy of the radiation is sufficient to dislodge a tightly-held inner electron, the atom becomes unstable and an outer electron replaces the missing inner electron. When this happens, energy is released due to the decreased binding energy of the inner electron orbital compared with an outer one. The emitted radiation is of lower energy than the primary incident X-rays and is termed fluorescent radiation. Because the energy of the emitted photon is characteristic of a transition between specific electron orbitals in a particular element, the resulting fluorescent X-rays can be used to detect the abundances of elements that are present in the sample.

Reference & Additional Information

Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy

Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) has risen to the forefron of analytical atomic spectroscopy as a subject of both fundamental and applied research. The ICP is perphaps the most significant development in analyrical atomic spectrometry.

Summary Analysis

Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) has risen to the forefron of analytical atomic spectoscopy as a subject of both fundamental and applied research. The ICP is perphaps the most significant development in analyrical atomic spectrometry. It is routinely applied to teh quantative determination of elemental compositions of extremely diverse materials in many laboratories throughout hte world. Today, ICP spectrometry, particularly atomic emission, is a highly developed measurement technique. The technique now holds the most prominent position in teh field of elemental and isotopic analysis. Atmospheric-pressure inductively coupled plasmas are flamelike electrical discharges that have revolutionized the practice of elemental and isotropic ratio analysis. In particular, the novel attributes of argon ICP's have made these plasmas a remarkable vapourization-atomization-excitation-ionization source for atomic emission and mass spectrometries.

Reference & Additional Information
  • Montaser, A., Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

Ion Chromotography

Ion chromatography is considered to be an indispensable tool in a modern analytical laboratory. Complex mixtures of anions or cations can usually be separated and quantitative amounts of the individual ions measured in a relatively short time. [Click to view more info] Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Summary Analysis

Ion chromatography is considered to be an indispensable tool in a modern analytical laboratory. Complex mixtures of anions or cations can usually be separated and quantitative amounts of the individual ions measured in a relatively short time. Higher concentrations of sample ions may require some dilution of the sample before introduction into the ion-chromatographic instrument. Dilute and shoot is the motto of many analytical chemists. However, ion chromatography is also a superby way to determine ions present at concentrations down to at least the low parts per billion range. Although the majority of ion chromatographic applications have been concerned with inorganic and relatively small organic ions, larger organic anions and cations may be determined as well.

Reference & Additional Information
  • Fritz, J.S. and Gjerde, D.T., Ion Chromatography - 4th Edition

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry is an analytical procedure for the qualitative detection and quantitative determination of elements through the absorption of optical radiation by free atoms in the gas phase. The spectra of the atoms are the line spectra which are specific for the absorbing elements.

Reference & Additional Information
  • Seiler, H.G., Sigel, A., & Sigel, H., Handbook on Metals in Clinical and Analytical Chemistry, 1994
  • Determination of trace elements in minerals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Volume 55, Issue 7, 1 July 2000, Pages 893-906 Trajce Stafilov

Particle Size Analysis

Particle size is a fundamental property of materials. Size can tell much about a material, including dynamical conditions of transport and deposition of the constituent particles of rocks is usually inferred from their size.

Summary Analysis

Particle size is a fundamental property of materials. Size can tell much about a material, including dynamical conditions of transport and deposition of the constituent particles of rocks is usually inferred from their size. The size distribution is an essential property for assessing the likely behavior of granular material under applied fluid or gravitational forces, and gauging the economic utility of bulk materials from wide ranging industries and applications. Particle size distribution analysis can be performed in many ways including particle counters such as the coulter counter, image analysis such as scanning or light microscopy, and multiple applications of sieving, including wet, dry, and electromagnetic sieving.

Reference & Additional Information
  • Syvitski, J.P.M., Principles, Methods, and Application of Particle Size Analysis